Are you acquainted with any of these GHCN stations?

The quality of GHCN metadata, in particular the latitude and longitude coordinates of stations, remains unsatisfactory. In fact the transition from v2 to v3 might suggest that renaming might be in order – judging by the nature of the metadata changes USAAHCN (US And Afterthoughts, rather than Global)  might seem a more apt description.

In this post I combine a rant, as you, the reader, may have already guessed, with a request for assistance from any reader who has knowledge of the actual location of certain stations (as distinct from the locations of those stations obtained from the GHCN metadata or from my own efforts to correct these locations).

Afterthought: information would also be welcome on the correct location of any GHCN station which is not listed below (such as, for example, most of the non-airport non-WMO stations) but which you know to have a location error in the GHCN inventory. It would also be helpful if any corrections also include the source of the information used to make the correction – unfortunately some of the “corrections” which I have seen posted on blogs are themselves incorrect. (The source of the information may of course simply be along the lines that “I live beside xxx airport and can see the station” rather than some published source)

The context of this request for assistance is preparation of a journal submission. I submitted a comment on Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo (2010) to Reviews of Geophysics, regarding the consequences for the Gistemp analysis of using a station inventory in which an unknown, but substantial, number of station locations are in error. The response was that “Reviews of Geophysics does not accept Comments/Replies since they are not a review”. The response however continued by suggesting that

“the topic of your Comment is potentially of great interest to the Climate Community and therefore I suggest that you submit it as a stand-alone paper to GRL or JGR. A paper that can quantify the size of the impact of the corrections would be an important contribution to the field”

Finding corrected locations for the complete GHCN v2 or v3 station inventory is an herculean task, one which of course should be undertaken by NOAA rather than by unpaid volunteers. It may be suggested that coordinates of the accuracy required by Gistemp and by my comment are not required by NOAA for their own purposes in respect of GHCN adjustments – I am not sufficiently acquainted with GHCN procedures to comment on this. If this is the case however the station inventory should have been published with corresponding precision, and certainly not with the misleading precision suggested by coordinates published with apparent precision of 0.01° in v2, now increased to 0.0001º in v3.

However, corrected coordinates for a much smaller subset of stations seem to be sufficient to demonstrate a substantial effect on the Gistemp analysis. Before submission I would like to verify and if possible refine my corrected coordinates for as many stations as possible in this subset.

Following the response from Reviews of Geophysics I have spent some time pursuing another source of corrected coordinates: the WMO revision of WMO Publication No. 9, Volume A, Observing Stations to accommodate station coordinates with higher precision. Unfortunately this revision does not provide sufficient stations with corrected coordinates to run a Gistemp analysis using only the stations in the GHCN inventory which can be corrected from this source, as I had hoped might be possible, so I am returning to my original subset of stations in preparing my submission, examining the effect of running the Gistemp analysis with the full GHCN inventory, but with the coordinates of this subset corrected.

The subset comprises stations identified:

  • as certainly wrongly located, since the coordinates indicate a station at sea whereas the remainder of the metadata indicates that this is a land rather than a ship station. If no more specific information is available the location has been changed to a more plausible location on shore. For example, Limassol is certainly not some 100 km from the Cypriot coastline, and this is not an airport station, so a location in the port area is chosen. This may not be the correct location, but is more likely to have similar night time radiance to the true location than is the offshore location.
  • as probably wrongly located since the metadata (or station name) indicates an airport station, but the coordinates indicate a location improbably distant from the indicated airport. If no more specific information is available the nominal location of the airport or a reasonable location within the airport boundary accessible by vehicle has been used.
  • by other means, such as WMO revisions or national station information listings.

Returning now to my rant: the metadata for GHCN v3 shows location changes for only two non-US stations. The Spanish station 6430816000, wrongly identified in v2 as Tenkodogo, with corresponding coordinates, which in fact is a location in Burkina Faso, now becomes Zaragoza/Aeropuerto, with coordinates back in Spain. Albacete has its longitude changed from 1.80 East to 1.80 West. And that’s it. Now this is somewhat surprising, as these two are only two among a list of incorrect locations which I notified to both NOAA and GISS in Spring last year, which Russell Vose indicated he would pass on to “the folks who are working on a new version of our temperature dataset”. GISS have further identified “Albacete” as in fact Ibiza (airport), and have in fact gone further and removed these stations from the analysis due to a potential mismatch between station ID and station name. That list contained other stations:

The three major errors which I found within a couple of minutes were:

ALBACETE            SPAIN       39.00    1.80   43    0U   83FLxxno-9x-9WATER           A

Which I at first thought was simply an east/west error as -1.80 degrees relative to Greenwich does in fact fall relatively close to the true location of Albacete, but when I looked at the remaining Spanish stations and found another, Soria, which is relocated eastwards by a similar distance, and recalled that I had used some Spanish maps 25 years ago which used the Madrid meridian, I checked and found that Madrid is 3.687911111 degrees west of Greenwich, realised that the shift from 1.8 to -1.8 was just a coincidence and corrected for the difference between Madrid and Greenwich instead, and found that Albacete now fell even closer to that city, and of course Soria also moved to the true location.

62316197001 ISOLA GORGONA                   42.40    9.90  254    0R   -9HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A

This small island is located at approximately 43.43 N, similar longitude

61017600001 LIMASSOL            CYPRUS      34.70   32.00    8    0U   82HIxxCO 1x-9WATER           A

Limassol is located at approximately 33.05 E, similar latitude

These relocations are so distant that no knowledge of the true coordinates was needed to find them within minutes. I had already noticed some time ago that the two stations at Cherbourg and Cherbourg airport, an area I am familiar with, had been relocated out into La Manche/English Channel, albeit not as extremely as the above stations, and it was in fact this which prompted me to check other stations now, and suggested an easy way to check at least some stations – I simply imported the coordinates of all European stations into Microsoft AutoRoute, and looked at the relatively few pushpins which appeared to be out at sea, and checked these to see if there was a “supporting island”. The three above were obviously wrong. There were also some others closer to shore, and in areas such as Turkey where the map detail was insufficient.

The next obvious group of stations to examine were airports, as the location of the station could be roughly determined without additional location information. To examine these I opened v2.inv in Excel, and wrote a short macro to produce a Google Earth kml file from selected stations, setting up a tour of these stations in Google Earth, with a pushpin and identifying information at each station location, and a short pause to allow zooming out if necessary if the airport runways were not in view. I have not attached these kml files now, as you may quite rightly be wary of mail from an unknown person with attachments, but I can send these on request when you have had a chance to verify from the examples in this email that the errors I describe are real. Sample airports you might look at include:

30187311000 SAN JUAN AERO                  -31.57  -68.87  598  688U  298MVxxno-9A 5WARM GRASS/SHRUBA

30382244001 SANTAREM/TAPERINHA              -2.40  -54.30   22   13U  102FLxxno-9A 1WARM GRASS/SHRUBA

30984564000 HUANUCO                         -9.90  -75.75 1860 3087U   52MVxxno-9A 1WARM GRASS/SHRUBA

30984691000 PISCO                          -13.75  -76.28    7    5U   53FLxxCO 1A 1WATER           B (smaller error)

And many more in other regions. These just happen to be among the first which caught my eye. And I mentioned Soria above:

64308171001 SORIA               SPAIN       41.70    1.20 1068  424R   -9HIFOno-9x-9MED. GRAZING    A

I looked at the remaining Spanish stations to see if any others were relocated like Albacete, and found Soria. But I also noticed two other trivial (from the GHCN point of view, although possibly not from a political point of view) errors. The 35 “Spanish” stations include

64308160000 TENKODOGO                       11.77    0.38 -999  288U  449HIxxno-9A10WARM GRASS/SHRUBA

Which is actually in Burkina Faso, and

64308330001 SINTRA/GRANJA                   38.80   -9.30  133  196U 1100HIxxCO 5A10COASTAL EDGES   C

Which is actually in Portugal, and far from the border. As Portugal already has a genuine historic border dispute with Spain (Olivença), perhaps this is one you should correct quickly!

Whatever about not taking on board the sample airport location errors, retention of the only too obvious errors for Isola Gorgona and Limassol, and the other “Madrid meridian” error, Soria, (which in fact seems to be one of the two Lleida airports, wrongly identified as Soria through use of a map with the Madrid meridian), is something I for one would find to embarrassing to even consider. And I hope you will agree that leaving the metadata for this purported “global” dataset in such a state merits my sarcasm at the start of this post.

I have concentrated my efforts on examining the non-US metadata, believing, perhaps naively, that the US metadata is more reliable, and as the US is relatively less significant in the Gistemp context, being we are told only 2% of the total area of the world. But here too there may be stations which merit examination. For example,

Bryan AFB

Texas A and M (Bryan AFB)

42572257002 Bryan/AFB, at the yellow pushpin in v2/v3, is Texas A and M, at the other end of the red line, bottom right. The other airstrip, closer to the v2/v3 position, is Varisko. The station may be located beyond Varisko but named as Bryan. However a location at Texas A and M/Bryan seems more likely.

Enough ranting for now. Here is my list of stations of interest with GISS/GHCN and corrected coordinates, showing also the distance between the GISS/GHCN location and the corrected location. The airport code (A/x) is also shown for the corrected location. Corrected locations are shown with three decimal digits – I have modified my Gistemp implementation to accept station inventories with either two or three decimal digits (or four if a file in GHCN v3 inventory format is used), and I use the presence of this third digit to indicate a corrected value.

The station list is shown in three tables:

  • The first table shows those stations where the distance between the two locations is 5 km or more, in descending order of this distance.
  • The second and third tables show stations in ID order, with stations where the distance between the two locations is 2.5 km or more in the second table, and the remaining stations in the third table.

The third table consists mostly of airport stations where the nominal airport location has been recorded. As these are marginal corrections, which may not be real, I intend to drop them unless verified as real. There are also some stations in this table however, particularly Australian stations, where these small distances have actually been verified, and will be retained.

There are some recent WMO location updates which have still to be integrated with the previous updates on which these tables are based. I will modify these tables to reflect any changes.

Stations relocated by 5 km or more:

GISS Corrected Dist
ID Country Station Lat Lon Lat Lon A/x km
21138082000 KAZAKHSTAN KZYL-ORDA 49.82 65.50 44.710 65.590 A 568.6
62316197001 ITALY ISOLA GORGONA 42.40 9.90 43.430 9.910 x 114.6
60914307000 CROATIA PULA AERODROM 45.90 13.92 44.890 13.920 A 112.4
50194312000 AUSTRALIA PORT HEDLAND ? -20.10 119.57 -20.373 118.632 A 102.5
61017600001 CYPRUS LIMASSOL 34.70 32.00 34.680 33.050 x 96.1
11864504001 GABON LIBREVILLE 0.70 10.20 0.460 9.410 A 91.9
10160559000 ALGERIA EL OUED 33.50 6.12 33.510 6.780 A 61.2
64308171001 SPAIN Aeroport Lleida Alguaire(SORIA 41.70 1.20 41.730 0.540 A 54.9
30382244001 BRAZIL SANTAREM/TAPERINHA -2.40 -54.30 -2.420 -54.790 A 54.5
70089612000 ANTARCTICA Casey_New_Airstrip (not old?) -66.30 110.80 -66.690 111.490 A 53.1
30984564000 PERU HUANUCO -9.90 -75.75 -9.880 -76.200 A 49.4
30187311000 ARGENTINA SAN JUAN AERO -31.57 -68.87 -31.570 -68.420 A 42.7
30383064000 BRAZIL PORTO NACIONAl(Tocantins) -10.52 -48.72 -10.720 -48.400 A 41.5
64308373001 SPAIN Ibiza (ALBACETE) 39.00 1.80 38.870 1.370 A 39.9
61710838001 GERMANY AUGSBURG 48.40 10.40 48.430 10.930 A 39.3
50793844000 NEW ZEALAND INVERCARGILL -46.70 168.55 -46.420 168.320 A 35.8
21240582000 KUWAIT KUWAIT INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 29.52 47.98 29.230 47.970 A 32.3
12761297000 MALI SIKASSO (Dignangan?) 11.35 -5.68 11.600 -5.800 A 30.7
30886097000 PARAGUAY PEDRO JUAN CA (Paraguay) -22.58 -55.65 -22.640 -55.830 A 19.7
15260769001 TUNISIA DJERBA 33.80 10.60 33.880 10.780 A 18.9
11965418001 GHANA TAMALE 9.40 -0.90 9.560 -0.860 A 18.3
50548657000 MALAYSIA KUANTAN 3.62 103.22 3.780 103.210 A 17.8
20559345001 CHINA PESCADORES (Wonan?) 23.50 119.60 23.370 119.500 A 17.7
30580259000 COLOMBIA CALI/CALIPUERTO 3.40 -76.40 3.540 -76.380 A 15.7
12567025000 MADAGASCAR ANTALAHA -14.88 50.25 -15.000 50.320 A 15.3
21135188001 KAZAKHSTAN CELINOGRAD (ASTANA) 51.13 71.37 51.020 71.470 A 14.1
20557679000 CHINA CHANGSHA 28.20 113.08 28.190 113.220 A 13.8
65033658000 UKRAINE CHERNIVTSI 48.37 25.90 48.260 25.980 A 13.6
31480457000 VENEZUELA PUERTO AYACUC 5.60 -67.50 5.620 -67.610 A 12.4
62826730000 LITHUANIA VILNIUS 54.63 25.10 54.640 25.290 A 12.3
62316242001 ITALY VIESTE AERO (Fiumicino) 41.90 12.20 41.800 12.250 A 11.9
21448947000 LAOS SAVANNAKHET 16.55 104.65 16.560 104.760 A 11.8
21135796000 KAZAKHSTAN BALHASH 46.80 75.08 46.890 75.000 A 11.7
14862781000 SUDAN EN NAHUD 12.70 28.43 12.670 28.330 A 11.4
40778479001 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC LA ROMANA DOMINICAN REPUBL 18.40 -69.00 18.450 -68.910 A 11.0
13761630000 SENEGAL MATAM 15.65 -13.25 15.590 -13.320 A 10.0
15260740000 TUNISIA MONASTIR-SKAN 35.67 10.75 35.760 10.750 A 10.0
30187688000 ARGENTINA TRES ARROYOS -38.33 -60.25 -38.390 -60.330 A 9.7
15960030000 CANARY ISLANDS (SPAIN) LAS PALAMAS (GANDO) 27.90 -15.30 27.930 -15.390 A 9.5
64308025000 SPAIN BILBAO SPAIN 43.30 -2.80 43.300 -2.910 A 8.9
11365560000 COTE D’IVOIRE DALOA 6.87 -6.47 6.790 -6.470 A 8.9
51291517000 SOLOMON ISLANDS HONIARA -9.42 159.97 -9.430 160.050 x 8.9
15061701000 THE GAMBIA BATHURST/YUNDUM 13.40 -16.70 13.340 -16.650 A 8.6
21941764000 PAKISTAN HYDERABAD AIR 25.38 68.42 25.320 68.370 A 8.4
15567753000 ZAMBIA CHOMA -16.83 27.07 -16.800 27.000 A 8.2
64308314000 SPAIN MAHON/SAN LUIS BALEARIC I 39.90 4.30 39.860 4.220 A 8.2
42572257002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BRYAN/AFB 30.67 -96.55 30.630 -96.480 A 8.0
30187270002 ARGENTINA GOYA -29.10 -59.30 -29.110 -59.220 A 7.9
30580370000 COLOMBIA IPIALES 0.80 -77.70 0.860 -77.670 A 7.5
11365536000 COTE D’IVOIRE KORHOGO 9.42 -5.62 9.390 -5.560 A 7.4
62316045000 ITALY UDINE/CAMPOFORMIDO 46.00 13.10 46.030 13.180 A 7.0
21941660000 PAKISTAN QUETTA/SAMUNGLI 30.30 66.90 30.250 66.940 A 6.8
30187395001 ARGENTINA CONCORDIA (WAS 873960) -31.50 -58.00 -31.440 -57.990 A 6.7
41278706000 HONDURAS TELA 15.72 -87.48 15.780 -87.480 A 6.7
50998644000 PHILIPPINES TAGBILARAN 9.60 123.85 9.660 123.850 A 6.7
30984691000 PERU PISCO -13.75 -76.28 -13.740 -76.220 A 6.6
12761257000 MALI KAYES 14.43 -11.43 14.480 -11.400 A 6.4
13361080000 NIGER MARADI 13.47 7.08 13.500 7.130 A 6.4
21941620000 PAKISTAN FORT SANDEMAN 31.40 69.50 31.360 69.460 A 5.9
20556492000 CHINA YIBIN 28.80 104.60 28.800 104.540 A 5.9
65033946000 UKRAINE SIMFEROPOL 45.00 34.00 45.050 33.980 A 5.8
61507039001 FRANCE CHERBOURG/CHANTEREYNE 49.70 -1.60 49.650 -1.620 x 5.7
61507039002 FRANCE CHERBOURG-MAUPERTUS 49.70 -1.50 49.650 -1.480 A 5.7
30580315000 COLOMBIA NEIVA 3.00 -75.30 2.950 -75.290 A 5.7
22848356000 THAILAND SAKON NAKHON 17.15 104.13 17.200 104.120 A 5.7
64308391001 SPAIN SEVILLA/TABLADA 37.40 -6.00 37.350 -6.010 A 5.6
10160475000 ALGERIA TEBESSA 35.48 8.13 35.430 8.130 A 5.6
30984515000 PERU PUCALLPA -8.42 -74.60 -8.380 -74.570 A 5.5
11064750000 CHAD FORT-ARCHAMBAULT 9.10 18.40 9.140 18.370 A 5.5
41678793001 PANAMA PUERTO ARMUELLES PANAMA 8.30 -82.90 8.270 -82.860 A 5.5
15567461000 ZAMBIA MANSA -11.10 28.85 -11.140 28.880 A 5.5
13761641002 SENEGAL THIES 14.80 -17.00 14.800 -16.950 A 5.4
42572376004 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FLAGSTAFF USA 35.10 -111.70 35.140 -111.670 A 5.2
20557602000 CHINA LUZHOU 28.88 105.43 28.850 105.390 A 5.1
22232133001 RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ASIAN SECTOR) OCHIAI (DOLINSK) 47.30 142.80 47.260 142.770 A 5.0

Stations relocated by 2.5 km or more:

GISS Corrected Dist
ID Country Station Lat Lon Lat Lon A/x km
10160457000 ALGERIA MOSTAGANEM VI 35.88 0.12 35.910 0.150 A 4.3
10160475000 ALGERIA TEBESSA 35.48 8.13 35.430 8.130 A 5.6
10160490000 ALGERIA ORAN/ES SENIA 35.60 -0.60 35.630 -0.610 A 3.5
10160559000 ALGERIA EL OUED 33.50 6.12 33.510 6.780 A 61.2
10764890000 CAMEROON MAMFE 5.72 9.28 5.700 9.310 A 4.0
10764950001 CAMEROON EBOLOWA 2.90 11.20 2.880 11.190 A 2.5
10964600000 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC BERBERATI 4.25 15.80 4.220 15.790 A 3.5
11064750000 CHAD FORT-ARCHAMBAULT 9.10 18.40 9.140 18.370 A 5.5
11167001001 COMOROS MORONI/GRANDE-COMORE/ -11.70 43.20 -11.710 43.240 A 4.5
11264401000 CONGO LOUBOMO -4.20 12.70 -4.210 12.660 A 4.6
11365536000 COTE D’IVOIRE KORHOGO 9.42 -5.62 9.390 -5.560 A 7.4
11365560000 COTE D’IVOIRE DALOA 6.87 -6.47 6.790 -6.470 A 8.9
11763334000 ETHIOPIA DEBREMARCOS 10.35 37.72 10.320 37.740 A 4.0
11864504001 GABON LIBREVILLE 0.70 10.20 0.460 9.410 A 91.9
11864551001 GABON LAMBARENE -0.72 10.23 -0.700 10.250 A 3.1
11965418001 GHANA TAMALE 9.40 -0.90 9.560 -0.860 A 18.3
12567025000 MADAGASCAR ANTALAHA -14.88 50.25 -15.000 50.320 A 15.3
12761257000 MALI KAYES 14.43 -11.43 14.480 -11.400 A 6.4
12761297000 MALI SIKASSO (Dignangan?) 11.35 -5.68 11.600 -5.800 A 30.7
12861498000 MAURITANIA KIFFA 16.63 -11.40 16.590 -11.410 A 4.6
13361080000 NIGER MARADI 13.47 7.08 13.500 7.130 A 6.4
13761630000 SENEGAL MATAM 15.65 -13.25 15.590 -13.320 A 10.0
13761641002 SENEGAL THIES 14.80 -17.00 14.800 -16.950 A 5.4
14063270000 SOMALIA CHISIMAIO -0.37 42.43 -0.380 42.460 A 3.5
14168370000 SOUTH AFRICA BETHAL -26.45 29.48 -26.480 29.450 A 4.5
14862781000 SUDAN EN NAHUD 12.70 28.43 12.670 28.330 A 11.4
15061701000 THE GAMBIA BATHURST/YUNDUM 13.40 -16.70 13.340 -16.650 A 8.6
15260740000 TUNISIA MONASTIR-SKAN 35.67 10.75 35.760 10.750 A 10.0
15260769001 TUNISIA DJERBA 33.80 10.60 33.880 10.780 A 18.9
15464005000 ZAIRE MBANDAKA 0.05 18.27 0.020 18.290 A 4.0
15464034000 ZAIRE BUTA 2.78 24.78 2.820 24.780 A 4.5
15464282000 ZAIRE MANONO -7.28 27.43 -7.290 27.390 A 4.6
15567413001 ZAMBIA ABERCORN -8.87 31.37 -8.860 31.340 A 3.5
15567461000 ZAMBIA MANSA -11.10 28.85 -11.140 28.880 A 5.5
15567753000 ZAMBIA CHOMA -16.83 27.07 -16.800 27.000 A 8.2
15667775000 ZIMBABWE HARARE (KUTSA -17.92 31.13 -17.930 31.090 A 4.4
15960030000 CANARY ISLANDS (SPAIN) LAS PALAMAS (GANDO) 27.90 -15.30 27.930 -15.390 A 9.5
20554497000 CHINA DANDONG 40.05 124.33 40.030 124.290 A 4.1
20556492000 CHINA YIBIN 28.80 104.60 28.800 104.540 A 5.9
20557447000 CHINA ENSHI 30.28 109.47 30.320 109.490 A 4.8
20557602000 CHINA LUZHOU 28.88 105.43 28.850 105.390 A 5.1
20557679000 CHINA CHANGSHA 28.20 113.08 28.190 113.220 A 13.8
20559345001 CHINA PESCADORES (Wonan?) 23.50 119.60 23.370 119.500 A 17.7
20840841000 IRAN KERMAN 30.25 56.97 30.270 56.950 A 2.9
21047843000 JAPAN FUKUE 32.70 128.83 32.670 128.830 A 3.3
21135188001 KAZAKHSTAN CELINOGRAD (ASTANA) 51.13 71.37 51.020 71.470 A 14.1
21135796000 KAZAKHSTAN BALHASH 46.80 75.08 46.890 75.000 A 11.7
21138082000 KAZAKHSTAN KZYL-ORDA 49.82 65.50 44.710 65.590 A 568.6
21240582000 KUWAIT KUWAIT INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 29.52 47.98 29.230 47.970 A 32.3
21448947000 LAOS SAVANNAKHET 16.55 104.65 16.560 104.760 A 11.8
21941620000 PAKISTAN FORT SANDEMAN 31.40 69.50 31.360 69.460 A 5.9
21941660000 PAKISTAN QUETTA/SAMUNGLI 30.30 66.90 30.250 66.940 A 6.8
21941764000 PAKISTAN HYDERABAD AIR 25.38 68.42 25.320 68.370 A 8.4
22224944000 RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ASIAN SECTOR) OLEKMINSK 60.40 120.42 60.400 120.470 A 2.7
22232133001 RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ASIAN SECTOR) OCHIAI (DOLINSK) 47.30 142.80 47.260 142.770 A 5.0
22443436000 SRI LANKA BATTICALOA 7.72 81.70 7.700 81.680 A 3.1
22848356000 THAILAND SAKON NAKHON 17.15 104.13 17.200 104.120 A 5.7
23248877001 VIETNAM BANMETHUOT 12.70 108.10 12.670 108.120 A 4.0
30187270000 ARGENTINA RECONQUISTA A -29.18 -59.70 -29.210 -59.680 A 3.9
30187270002 ARGENTINA GOYA -29.10 -59.30 -29.110 -59.220 A 7.9
30187311000 ARGENTINA SAN JUAN AERO -31.57 -68.87 -31.570 -68.420 A 42.7
30187395001 ARGENTINA CONCORDIA (WAS 873960) -31.50 -58.00 -31.440 -57.990 A 6.7
30187453000 ARGENTINA RIO CUARTO AE -33.12 -64.23 -33.090 -64.260 A 4.4
30187544000 ARGENTINA PEHUAJO AERO -35.87 -61.90 -35.840 -61.860 A 4.9
30187648000 ARGENTINA DOLORES AERO -36.35 -57.73 -36.320 -57.720 A 3.5
30187688000 ARGENTINA TRES ARROYOS -38.33 -60.25 -38.390 -60.330 A 9.7
30187750000 ARGENTINA BAHIA BLANCA AERO -38.70 -62.20 -38.720 -62.170 A 3.4
30187750002 ARGENTINA COMANDANTE ESPORA B.N. -38.70 -62.20 -38.720 -62.170 A 3.4
30187791000 ARGENTINA VIEDMA AERO -40.85 -63.02 -40.870 -63.000 A 2.8
30382244001 BRAZIL SANTAREM/TAPERINHA -2.40 -54.30 -2.420 -54.790 A 54.5
30383064000 BRAZIL PORTO NACIONAl(Tocantins) -10.52 -48.72 -10.720 -48.400 A 41.5
30485406000 CHILE ARICA -18.33 -70.33 -18.350 -70.340 A 2.5
30485766000 CHILE VALDIVIA -39.62 -73.08 -39.650 -73.090 A 3.4
30580091000 COLOMBIA BARRANCABERMEJA 7.00 -73.80 7.020 -73.810 A 2.5
30580259000 COLOMBIA CALI/CALIPUERTO 3.40 -76.40 3.540 -76.380 A 15.7
30580315000 COLOMBIA NEIVA 3.00 -75.30 2.950 -75.290 A 5.7
30580370000 COLOMBIA IPIALES 0.80 -77.70 0.860 -77.670 A 7.5
30886097000 PARAGUAY PEDRO JUAN CA (Paraguay) -22.58 -55.65 -22.640 -55.830 A 19.7
30984515000 PERU PUCALLPA -8.42 -74.60 -8.380 -74.570 A 5.5
30984564000 PERU HUANUCO -9.90 -75.75 -9.880 -76.200 A 49.4
30984658000 PERU PUERTO MALDON -12.63 -69.20 -12.610 -69.230 A 3.9
30984691000 PERU PISCO -13.75 -76.28 -13.740 -76.220 A 6.6
31386440000 URUGUAY MELO -32.37 -54.22 -32.340 -54.220 A 3.3
31480457000 VENEZUELA PUERTO AYACUC 5.60 -67.50 5.620 -67.610 A 12.4
40778479001 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC LA ROMANA DOMINICAN REPUBL 18.40 -69.00 18.450 -68.910 A 11.0
41278706000 HONDURAS TELA 15.72 -87.48 15.780 -87.480 A 6.7
41678793001 PANAMA PUERTO ARMUELLES PANAMA 8.30 -82.90 8.270 -82.860 A 5.5
42572214000 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TALLAHASSEE/M 30.38 -84.37 30.400 -84.350 A 2.9
42572257002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BRYAN/AFB 30.67 -96.55 30.630 -96.480 A 8.0
42572376004 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FLAGSTAFF USA 35.10 -111.70 35.140 -111.670 A 5.2
50194120000 AUSTRALIA DARWIN AIRPOR -12.40 130.87 -12.424 130.893 A 3.7
50194312000 AUSTRALIA PORT HEDLAND ? -20.10 119.57 -20.373 118.632 A 102.5
50194476000 AUSTRALIA OODNADATTA AI -27.58 135.45 -27.555 135.446 A 2.8
50194659000 AUSTRALIA WOOMERA AEROD -31.13 136.82 -31.156 136.805 A 3.2
50194829000 AUSTRALIA HAMILTON AIRP -37.63 142.05 -37.650 142.070 A 2.8
50194832000 AUSTRALIA WARRNAMBOOL A -38.28 142.43 -38.300 142.450 A 2.8
50194865000 AUSTRALIA LAVERTON AERO -37.85 144.73 -37.857 144.757 A 2.5
50396295000 INDONESIA TELUKBETUNG/B -5.27 105.18 -5.240 105.180 A 3.3
50397014000 INDONESIA MENADO/DR. SA 1.53 124.92 1.550 124.930 A 2.5
50397240000 INDONESIA AMPENAN/SELAP -8.53 116.07 -8.560 116.090 A 4.0
50548603001 MALAYSIA ALOR SETAR AIRPORT 6.20 100.42 6.190 100.400 A 2.5
50548657000 MALAYSIA KUANTAN 3.62 103.22 3.780 103.210 A 17.8
50793844000 NEW ZEALAND INVERCARGILL -46.70 168.55 -46.420 168.320 A 35.8
50998444000 PHILIPPINES LEGASPI 13.13 123.73 13.160 123.750 A 4.0
50998546000 PHILIPPINES CATARMAN 12.48 124.63 12.500 124.640 A 2.5
50998644000 PHILIPPINES TAGBILARAN 9.60 123.85 9.660 123.850 A 6.7
50998751000 PHILIPPINES MALAYBALAY 8.15 125.08 8.140 125.120 A 4.5
51291517000 SOLOMON ISLANDS HONIARA -9.42 159.97 -9.430 160.050 x 8.9
52396995000 CHRISTMAS ISLAND (AUSTRALIA) CHRISTMAS ISL -10.43 105.68 -10.453 105.688 A 2.7
60914307000 CROATIA PULA AERODROM 45.90 13.92 44.890 13.920 A 112.4
61017600001 CYPRUS LIMASSOL 34.70 32.00 34.680 33.050 x 96.1
61507039001 FRANCE CHERBOURG/CHANTEREYNE 49.70 -1.60 49.650 -1.620 x 5.7
61507039002 FRANCE CHERBOURG-MAUPERTUS 49.70 -1.50 49.650 -1.480 A 5.7
61710838001 GERMANY AUGSBURG 48.40 10.40 48.430 10.930 A 39.3
62316045000 ITALY UDINE/CAMPOFORMIDO 46.00 13.10 46.030 13.180 A 7.0
62316197001 ITALY ISOLA GORGONA 42.40 9.90 43.430 9.910 x 114.6
62316242001 ITALY VIESTE AERO (Fiumicino) 41.90 12.20 41.800 12.250 A 11.9
62826730000 LITHUANIA VILNIUS 54.63 25.10 54.640 25.290 A 12.3
63512399001 POLAND BIALA PODLASKA 52.00 23.10 52.010 23.140 A 3.0
63608512001 PORTUGAL PONTA DELGADA AZORES 37.70 -25.70 37.740 -25.700 A 4.5
63827037000 RUSSIAN FEDERATION (EUROPEAN SECTOR) VOLOGDA 59.32 39.92 59.280 39.940 A 4.6
64308025000 SPAIN BILBAO SPAIN 43.30 -2.80 43.300 -2.910 A 8.9
64308160000 SPAIN TENKODOGO (ZARAGOZA) 41.70 -1.00 41.670 -1.040 A 4.7
64308171001 SPAIN Aeroport Lleida Alguaire(SORIA 41.70 1.20 41.730 0.540 A 54.9
64308314000 SPAIN MAHON/SAN LUIS BALEARIC I 39.90 4.30 39.860 4.220 A 8.2
64308330001 SPAIN SINTRA/GRANJA 38.80 -9.30 38.830 -9.340 A 4.8
64308373001 SPAIN Ibiza (ALBACETE) 39.00 1.80 38.870 1.370 A 39.9
64308391001 SPAIN SEVILLA/TABLADA 37.40 -6.00 37.350 -6.010 A 5.6
65033301000 UKRAINE RIVNE (Rovno) 50.58 26.13 50.610 26.140 A 3.4
65033658000 UKRAINE CHERNIVTSI 48.37 25.90 48.260 25.980 A 13.6
65033946000 UKRAINE SIMFEROPOL 45.00 34.00 45.050 33.980 A 5.8
70089612000 ANTARCTICA Casey_New_Airstrip (not old?) -66.30 110.80 -66.690 111.490 A 53.1

Stations relocated by less than 2.5 km:

GISS Corrected Dist
ID Country Station Lat Lon Lat Lon A/x km
10160425000 ALGERIA CHLEF 36.22 1.33 36.220 1.340 A 0.9
10160531000 ALGERIA TLEMCEN (ZENA 35.02 -1.47 35.020 -1.450 A 1.8
10160566000 ALGERIA GHARDAIA 32.38 3.82 32.380 3.800 A 1.9
10266305001 ANGOLA LOBITO -12.37 13.53 -12.370 13.540 A 1.1
10266325000 ANGOLA BIE (SILVA PO -12.38 16.95 -12.400 16.950 A 2.2
10266390000 ANGOLA LUBANGO (SA D -14.93 13.57 -14.920 13.580 A 1.5
10365330000 BENIN PARAKOU 9.35 2.62 9.360 2.610 A 1.6
10764870000 CAMEROON NGAOUNDERE 7.35 13.57 7.360 13.560 A 1.6
10764893000 CAMEROON KOUNDJA 5.65 10.75 5.640 10.750 A 1.1
10964601000 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC BOUAR 5.97 15.63 5.960 15.640 A 1.6
10964610000 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC BOSSANGOA 6.48 17.43 6.490 17.430 A 1.1
10964655000 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC BRIA 6.53 21.98 6.530 21.990 A 1.1
11064756000 CHAD ABECHE 13.85 20.85 13.850 20.840 A 1.1
11463125000 DJIBOUTI DJIBOUTI 11.55 43.15 11.550 43.160 A 1.1
11763331000 ETHIOPIA GONDAR 12.53 37.43 12.520 37.430 A 1.1
11763333000 ETHIOPIA COMBOLCHA 11.08 39.72 11.080 39.710 A 1.1
11763402000 ETHIOPIA JIMMA 7.67 36.83 7.670 36.820 A 1.1
12161766000 GUINEA-BISSAU BISSAU (AEROP 11.88 -15.65 11.890 -15.650 A 1.1
12567009000 MADAGASCAR DIEGO-SUAREZ -12.35 49.30 -12.350 49.290 A 1.1
12567095000 MADAGASCAR TAMATAVE -18.12 49.40 -18.110 49.390 A 1.5
12567143000 MADAGASCAR MANANJARY -21.20 48.37 -21.200 48.360 A 1.0
12567197000 MADAGASCAR FORT-DAUPHIN -25.03 46.95 -25.040 46.960 A 1.5
12667423000 MALAWI KARONGA -9.95 33.88 -9.950 33.890 A 1.1
12761265000 MALI MOPTI 14.52 -4.10 14.510 -4.080 A 2.4
12761270000 MALI KITA 13.07 -9.47 13.070 -9.480 A 1.1
13167297000 MOZAMBIQUE BEIRA -19.80 34.90 -19.800 34.910 A 1.0
13361024000 NIGER AGADEZ 16.97 7.98 16.970 8.000 A 2.1
13961881000 SIERRA LEONE BO 7.95 -11.77 7.950 -11.760 A 1.1
14168424000 SOUTH AFRICA UPINGTON -28.40 21.27 -28.400 21.260 A 1.0
14168828000 SOUTH AFRICA GEORGE AIRPOR -34.00 22.38 -34.010 22.380 A 1.1
14862770000 SUDAN GENEINA 13.48 22.45 13.480 22.470 A 2.2
14862840000 SUDAN MALAKAL 9.55 31.65 9.560 31.650 A 1.1
15260750000 TUNISIA SFAX EL-MAOU 34.72 10.68 34.720 10.690 A 0.9
15363705000 UGANDA ENTEBBE AIRPO 0.05 32.45 0.040 32.440 A 1.6
15464210000 ZAIRE KINSHASA/N’DJ -4.38 15.43 -4.390 15.440 A 1.6
15667975000 ZIMBABWE MASVINGO -20.07 30.87 -20.060 30.860 A 1.5
20448991000 CAMBODIA PHNOM-PENH/ 11.55 104.85 11.550 104.840 A 1.1
20559345002 CHINA PENG HU TAIWAN 23.52 119.57 23.520 119.580 A 1.0
20742475000 INDIA ALLAHABAD/BAM 25.45 81.73 25.440 81.730 A 1.1
20743198000 INDIA BELGAUM/SAMBR 15.85 74.62 15.860 74.620 A 1.1
21047740000 JAPAN SAIGO 36.20 133.33 36.180 133.320 A 2.4
21648110000 MYANMAR MERGUI 12.43 98.60 12.440 98.620 A 2.4
22340400000 SAUDI ARABIA WEJH 26.20 36.47 26.200 36.480 A 1.0
22738954000 TAJIKISTAN KHOROG 37.50 71.50 37.500 71.510 A 0.9
22848378000 THAILAND PHITSANULOK 16.78 100.27 16.780 100.280 A 1.1
22848567000 THAILAND TRANG 7.52 99.62 7.510 99.620 A 1.1
23248855000 VIETNAM DA NANG 16.03 108.18 16.040 108.200 A 2.4
30187046000 ARGENTINA JUJUY AERO -24.38 -65.08 -24.390 -65.100 A 2.3
30187395000 ARGENTINA CONCORDIA AER -31.30 -58.02 -31.300 -58.000 A 1.9
30187497000 ARGENTINA GUALEGUAYCHU -33.00 -58.62 -33.010 -58.610 A 1.5
30187509000 ARGENTINA SAN RAFAEL AE -34.58 -68.40 -34.590 -68.400 A 1.1
30187623000 ARGENTINA SANTA ROSA AE -36.57 -64.27 -36.590 -64.280 A 2.4
30187765000 ARGENTINA BARILOCHE AER -41.15 -71.17 -41.150 -71.160 A 0.8
30187803000 ARGENTINA ESQUEL AERO -42.93 -71.15 -42.910 -71.140 A 2.4
30187925000 ARGENTINA RIO GALLEGOS -51.62 -69.28 -51.610 -69.310 A 2.4
30485442000 CHILE ANTOFAGASTA -23.43 -70.43 -23.440 -70.450 A 2.3
30485782000 CHILE OSORNO -40.60 -73.05 -40.610 -73.060 A 1.4
30485799000 CHILE PUERTO MONTT -41.42 -73.08 -41.440 -73.090 A 2.4
30684027000 ECUADOR TULCAN/EL ROS 0.82 -77.70 0.810 -77.710 A 1.6
30684140001 ECUADOR ESMERALDAS-TACHINA -0.98 -79.62 -0.980 -79.630 A 1.1
30984370000 PERU TUMBES -3.55 -80.40 -3.550 -80.380 A 2.2
30984531000 PERU CHIMBOTE -9.17 -78.52 -9.150 -78.520 A 2.2
31386330000 URUGUAY ARTIGAS -30.38 -56.50 -30.400 -56.510 A 2.4
31581405000 FRENCH GUIANA (FRANCE) CAYENNE/ROCHA 4.83 -52.37 4.820 -52.360 A 1.6
40278583000 BELIZE BELIZE/PHILLI 17.53 -88.30 17.540 -88.310 A 1.5
40371138000 CANADA YORKTON,SASK. 51.27 -102.47 51.260 -102.460 A 1.3
40371610002 CANADA SHERBROOKE A,QU 45.43 -71.68 45.440 -71.690 A 1.4
40371850000 CANADA KENORA,ONT. 49.78 -94.37 49.790 -94.360 A 1.3
40371870000 CANADA SWIFT CURRENT 50.28 -107.68 50.290 -107.690 A 1.3
40371898000 CANADA PRINCE RUPERT 54.30 -130.43 54.290 -130.440 A 1.3
40371943003 CANADA DAWSON CREEK A,BC 55.73 -120.18 55.740 -120.180 A 1.1
40678348000 CUBA CAIBARIEN, VI 22.52 -79.45 22.510 -79.470 A 2.3
40678355000 CUBA CAMAGUEY, CAM 21.40 -77.85 21.420 -77.850 A 2.2
41278705000 HONDURAS LA CEIBA (AIR 15.73 -86.87 15.740 -86.850 A 2.4
41578744001 NICARAGUA BLUEFIELDS 12.00 -83.77 11.990 -83.770 A 1.1
41678795000 PANAMA SANTIAGO 8.08 -80.95 8.090 -80.950 A 1.1
42378073000 THE BAHAMAS NASSAU AIRPOR 25.05 -77.47 25.040 -77.470 A 1.1
42572226004 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CRAIG/AFB 32.33 -86.98 32.340 -86.990 A 1.5
42572228003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ANNISTON/FAA AIRPORT 33.58 -85.85 33.590 -85.860 A 1.4
42572248003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA EL DORADO/FAA AIRPORT 33.22 -92.80 33.220 -92.810 A 0.9
42572260003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA MINERAL WELLS/MUNICIPAL AP 32.78 -98.07 32.780 -98.060 A 0.9
42572289002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HOLLYWOOD-BURBANK/WB AIRPORT 34.20 -118.37 34.200 -118.360 A 0.9
42572312002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ANDERSON/FAA AIRPORT 34.50 -82.72 34.500 -82.710 A 0.9
42572340002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA PINE BLUFF/FAA AIRPORT 34.17 -91.93 34.170 -91.940 A 0.9
42572364003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEMING/FAA AIRPORT 32.25 -107.70 32.260 -107.720 A 2.2
42572445001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VICHY/ROLLA NAT’L ARPT 38.12 -91.77 38.130 -91.770 A 1.1
42572521002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ZANESVILLE/FAA AIRPORT 39.95 -81.90 39.940 -81.890 A 1.4
42572523001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BRADFORD/FAA AIRPORT 41.80 -78.63 41.800 -78.640 A 0.8
42572537006 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DETROIT/CITY AIRPORT 42.42 -83.02 42.410 -83.010 A 1.4
42572540001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA KIRKSVILLE/FAA ARPT 40.10 -92.55 40.090 -92.540 A 1.4
42572564002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA LARAMIE AP 41.32 -105.68 41.310 -105.680 A 1.1
42572639000 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ALPENA/PHELPS 45.07 -83.57 45.080 -83.560 A 1.4
42572745001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CLOQUET 46.70 -92.52 46.700 -92.500 A 1.5
42572745003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HIBBING/FAA AIRPORT 47.38 -92.85 47.390 -92.840 A 1.3
42572758002 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA JAMESTOWN/FAA AIRPORT 46.92 -98.68 46.930 -98.680 A 1.1
42572791000 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ASTORIA/CLATS 46.15 -123.88 46.160 -123.880 A 1.1
42572792003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HOQUIAM/AP 46.98 -123.93 46.970 -123.940 A 1.3
42574546001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA EMPORIA/FAA AIRPORT 38.33 -96.20 38.330 -96.190 A 0.9
42574556006 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA QUINCY/FAA AIRPORT 39.93 -91.20 39.940 -91.200 A 1.1
42574595001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA SALISBURY/WICOMICO CO AP 38.33 -75.52 38.340 -75.510 A 1.4
42574611001 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DAGGETT/FAA AIRPORT 34.87 -116.78 34.850 -116.790 A 2.4
42574777004 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA PENSACOLA/SAUFLEY NAS 30.48 -87.35 30.470 -87.340 A 1.5
42574781003 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA THOMASVILLE USA 30.90 -83.90 30.900 -83.880 A 1.9
50194150000 AUSTRALIA GOVE AIRPORT -12.27 136.82 -12.274 136.820 A 0.4
50194203000 AUSTRALIA BROOME AIRPOR -17.95 122.22 -17.948 122.235 A 1.6
50194212000 AUSTRALIA HALLS CREEK A -18.22 127.65 -18.229 127.664 A 1.8
50194238000 AUSTRALIA TENNANT CREEK MO -19.63 134.18 -19.642 134.183 A 1.4
50194287000 AUSTRALIA CAIRNS AIRPOR -16.88 145.75 -16.874 145.746 A 0.8
50194294000 AUSTRALIA TOWNSVILLE AM -19.25 146.75 -19.248 146.766 A 1.7
50194300000 AUSTRALIA CARNARVON AIR -24.87 113.67 -24.888 113.670 A 2.0
50194302000 AUSTRALIA LEARMONTH AIR -22.23 114.08 -22.241 114.097 A 2.1
50194313000 AUSTRALIA WITTENOOM -22.23 118.33 -22.243 118.336 x 1.6
50194326000 AUSTRALIA ALICE SPRINGS -23.80 133.88 -23.795 133.889 A 1.1
50194332000 AUSTRALIA MT ISA AIRPOR -20.67 139.48 -20.678 139.486 A 1.1
50194339000 AUSTRALIA WINTON (POST -22.38 143.03 -22.391 143.039 x 1.5
50194340000 AUSTRALIA RICHMOND -20.72 143.13 -20.729 143.143 x 1.7
50194346000 AUSTRALIA LONGREACH AIR -23.43 144.27 -23.437 144.277 A 1.1
50194367000 AUSTRALIA MACKAY -21.12 149.22 -21.117 149.217 x 0.5
50194374000 AUSTRALIA ROCKHAMPTON A -23.38 150.47 -23.375 150.476 A 0.8
50194380000 AUSTRALIA GLADSTONE -23.85 151.25 -23.855 151.263 x 1.4
50194403000 AUSTRALIA GERALDTON AIR -28.78 114.70 -28.795 114.698 A 1.7
50194430000 AUSTRALIA MEEKATHARRA A -26.60 118.53 -26.614 118.537 A 1.7
50194461000 AUSTRALIA GILES -25.03 128.28 -25.034 128.301 A 2.2
50194480000 AUSTRALIA MARREE -29.65 138.05 -29.648 138.064 x 1.4
50194485000 AUSTRALIA TIBOOBURRA -29.42 142.02 -29.435 142.010 x 1.9
50194510000 AUSTRALIA CHARLEVILLE A -26.40 146.27 -26.414 146.256 A 2.1
50194568000 AUSTRALIA AMBERLEY AERO -27.63 152.72 -27.630 152.711 A 0.9
50194589000 AUSTRALIA YAMBA -29.43 153.35 -29.433 153.363 x 1.3
50194601000 AUSTRALIA CAPE LEEUWIN -34.37 115.12 -34.373 115.136 x 1.5
50194616000 AUSTRALIA BRIDGETOWN -33.95 116.13 -33.958 116.138 x 1.2
50194619000 AUSTRALIA DALWALLINU -30.27 116.65 -30.277 116.662 x 1.4
50194635000 AUSTRALIA LAKE GRACE -33.12 118.47 -33.101 118.463 x 2.2
50194637000 AUSTRALIA KALGOORLIE BO -30.78 121.45 -30.785 121.453 A 0.6
50194638000 AUSTRALIA ESPERANCE -33.82 121.88 -33.830 121.893 x 1.6
50194653000 AUSTRALIA CEDUNA AIRPOR -32.12 133.70 -32.130 133.698 A 1.1
50194655000 AUSTRALIA TARCOOLA -30.72 134.57 -30.705 134.579 x 1.9
50194681000 AUSTRALIA NURIOOTPA -34.47 139.00 -34.476 139.006 x 0.9
50194693000 AUSTRALIA MILDURA AIRPO -34.22 142.08 -34.236 142.087 A 1.9
50194709000 AUSTRALIA WYALONG -33.92 147.23 -33.926 147.242 x 1.3
50194711000 AUSTRALIA COBAR -31.48 145.82 -31.484 145.829 x 1.0
50194730000 AUSTRALIA BATHURST AGRI -33.43 149.57 -33.429 149.556 x 1.3
50194741000 AUSTRALIA LITHGOW -33.48 150.13 -33.500 150.120 A 2.4
50194750000 AUSTRALIA NOWRA RAN AIR -34.95 150.53 -34.947 150.535 A 0.6
50194776000 AUSTRALIA WILLIAMTOWN -32.78 151.82 -32.793 151.836 A 2.1
50194791000 AUSTRALIA COFFS HARBOUR -30.32 153.12 -30.311 153.119 A 1.0
50194802000 AUSTRALIA ALBANY (ALBANY A.M.O.) -34.95 117.80 -34.941 117.802 x 1.0
50194812000 AUSTRALIA ROBE (P.O.) -37.17 139.75 -37.163 139.756 x 0.9
50194821000 AUSTRALIA MT GAMBIER AI -37.73 140.78 -37.747 140.774 A 2.0
50194826000 AUSTRALIA CAPE NELSON -38.43 141.55 -38.431 141.544 x 0.5
50194842000 AUSTRALIA CAPE OTWAY -38.85 143.50 -38.856 143.513 x 1.3
50194852000 AUSTRALIA BALLARAT -37.52 143.77 -37.510 143.790 A 2.1
50194893000 AUSTRALIA WILSONS PROMO -39.12 146.42 -39.130 146.424 x 1.2
50194907000 AUSTRALIA EAST SALE AER -38.10 147.13 -38.116 147.132 A 1.8
50194910000 AUSTRALIA WAGGA AIRPORT -35.15 147.45 -35.158 147.457 A 1.1
50194917000 AUSTRALIA ORBOST -37.68 148.45 -37.692 148.459 x 1.6
50194926000 AUSTRALIA CANBERRA AIRP -35.30 149.18 -35.305 149.201 A 2.0
50194937000 AUSTRALIA MORUYA HEADS -35.90 150.15 -35.909 150.153 x 1.0
50194967000 AUSTRALIA CAPE BRUNY -43.50 147.15 -43.489 147.145 x 1.3
50194968000 AUSTRALIA LAUNCESTON AI -41.53 147.20 -41.550 147.210 A 2.4
50194975000 AUSTRALIA HOBART AIRPOR -42.83 147.48 -42.834 147.503 A 1.9
50194983000 AUSTRALIA EDDYSTONE POI -40.98 148.33 -40.993 148.347 x 2.0
50194995000 AUSTRALIA LORD HOWE ISL -31.53 159.07 -31.542 159.079 A 1.6
50194998000 AUSTRALIA MACQUARIE ISL -54.48 158.95 -54.499 158.937 x 2.3
50195646000 AUSTRALIA FORREST (FORREST AMO) -30.83 128.12 -30.845 128.109 A 2.0
50195664000 AUSTRALIA WHYALLA AIRPO -33.07 137.52 -33.060 137.510 A 1.5
50195753000 AUSTRALIA RICHMOND AMO -33.60 150.78 -33.600 150.776 A 0.4
50195762000 AUSTRALIA TAMWORTH AIRP -31.07 150.83 -31.080 150.850 A 2.2
50291683000 FIJI NAUSORI -18.05 178.57 -18.040 178.560 A 1.5
50396109000 INDONESIA PAKANBARU/ 0.47 101.45 0.460 101.440 A 1.6
50396195000 INDONESIA JAMBI/SULTAN -1.63 103.65 -1.640 103.640 A 1.6
50396237000 INDONESIA PANGKALPINANG -2.17 106.13 -2.160 106.140 A 1.6
50396685000 INDONESIA BANJARMASIN/ -3.43 114.75 -3.440 114.760 A 1.6
50396801000 INDONESIA TASIKMALAYA/ -7.33 108.25 -7.350 108.250 A 2.2
50397724000 INDONESIA AMBON/PATTIMU -3.70 128.08 -3.710 128.090 A 1.6
50596491000 MALAYSIA SANDAKAN 5.90 118.07 5.900 118.060 A 1.1
50793309000 NEW ZEALAND NEW PLYMOUTH -39.02 174.18 -39.010 174.180 A 1.1
50793546000 NEW ZEALAND NELSON AERODR -41.28 173.23 -41.300 173.220 A 2.4
50894010000 PAPUA NEW GUINEA GOROKA -6.07 145.38 -6.080 145.390 A 1.6
50894085000 PAPUA NEW GUINEA RABAUL M.O. (old, to 1994) -4.22 152.18 -4.230 152.190 A 1.6
50998431000 PHILIPPINES CALAPAN 13.42 121.18 13.420 121.200 A 2.2
50998538000 PHILIPPINES ROXAS 11.58 122.75 11.600 122.750 A 2.2
50998543000 PHILIPPINES MASBATE 12.37 123.62 12.370 123.630 A 1.1
50998741000 PHILIPPINES DIPOLOG 8.60 123.35 8.600 123.330 A 2.2
52496996000 COCOS ISLANDS (AUSTRALIA) COCOS ISLAND -12.18 96.82 -12.189 96.834 A 1.8
52694299000 CORAL SEA ISLANDS (AUSTRALIA) WILLIS ISLAND -16.30 149.98 -16.288 149.965 x 2.1
53494996000 NORFOLK ISLAND (AUSTRALIA) NORFOLK ISLAN -29.03 167.93 -29.039 167.941 A 1.5
60437985000 AZERBAIJAN LANKARAN 38.73 48.83 38.750 48.820 A 2.4
60914317001 CROATIA RIJEKA/OMISALJ 45.22 14.58 45.220 14.570 A 0.8
60914474000 CROATIA DUBROVNIK/CIL 42.57 18.27 42.560 18.270 A 1.1
61111782000 CZECH REPUBLIC OSTRAVA/MOSNO 49.68 18.12 49.700 18.110 A 2.3
61710763000 GERMANY NUERNBERG 49.50 11.05 49.503 11.055 A 0.5
61816650000 GREECE LIMNOS(AIRPOR 39.92 25.23 39.920 25.240 A 0.9
61816726000 GREECE KALAMATA 37.07 22.02 37.070 22.030 A 0.9
61912882000 HUNGARY DEBRECEN 47.48 21.63 47.490 21.620 A 1.3
62103953000 IRELAND VALENTIA OBSE 51.93 -10.25 51.940 -10.230 x 1.8
62103955000 IRELAND CORK AIRPORT 51.85 -8.48 51.850 -8.490 A 0.7
62103957000 IRELAND ROSSLARE 52.25 -6.33 52.250 -6.340 x 0.7
62103962000 IRELAND SHANNON AIRPO 52.70 -8.92 52.690 -8.920 A 1.1
62103965000 IRELAND BIRR 53.08 -7.88 53.090 -7.890 A 1.3
62103967000 IRELAND CASEMENT AERO 53.30 -6.43 53.310 -6.440 A 1.3
62103969000 IRELAND DUBLIN AIRPOR 53.43 -6.25 53.430 -6.240 A 0.7
62103970000 IRELAND CLAREMORRIS 53.72 -8.98 53.710 -8.990 x 1.3
62103971000 IRELAND MULLINGAR 53.53 -7.37 53.540 -7.360 x 1.3
62103976000 IRELAND BELMULLET 54.23 -10.00 54.230 -10.010 x 0.7
62103980000 IRELAND MALIN HEAD 55.37 -7.33 55.370 -7.340 x 0.6
62316206000 ITALY GROSSETO 42.75 11.07 42.760 11.070 A 1.1
62316261000 ITALY AMENDOLA 41.53 15.72 41.540 15.720 A 1.1
62316263001 ITALY PONTECAGNANO 40.60 14.90 40.620 14.910 A 2.4
62316350000 ITALY CROTONE 39.00 17.07 39.000 17.080 A 0.9
62316520000 ITALY ALGHERO 40.63 8.28 40.630 8.290 A 0.8
62440340000 JORDAN AQABA AIRPORT 29.63 35.02 29.610 35.020 A 2.2
63512495000 POLAND LUBLIN RADAWI 51.22 22.40 51.220 22.390 A 0.7
64214014000 SLOVENIA LJUBLJANA/BRN 46.22 14.48 46.220 14.460 A 1.5
64308075000 SPAIN BURGOS/VILLAF 42.37 -3.63 42.360 -3.610 A 2.0
64308397000 SPAIN MORON DE LA F 37.15 -5.62 37.170 -5.620 A 2.2
64308487000 SPAIN ALMERIA/AEROP 36.85 -2.38 36.840 -2.370 A 1.4
64360338000 SPAIN MELILLA 35.28 -2.95 35.280 -2.960 A 0.9
64502590000 SWEDEN VISBY AIRPORT 57.67 18.35 57.660 18.350 A 1.1
64917115000 TURKEY BANDIRMA 40.32 27.97 40.320 27.980 A 0.8
64917150000 TURKEY BALIKESIR 39.62 27.92 39.620 27.930 A 0.9
64917170000 TURKEY VAN 38.45 43.32 38.470 43.330 A 2.4
64917280000 TURKEY DIYARBAKIR 37.88 40.18 37.890 40.200 A 2.1
70089564000 ANTARCTICA MAWSON -67.60 62.87 -67.602 62.875 x 0.3
70089571000 ANTARCTICA DAVIS -68.58 77.97 -68.574 77.967 x 0.7
70089611000 ANTARCTICA CASEY -66.28 110.52 -66.283 110.523 x 0.4
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15 Responses to Are you acquainted with any of these GHCN stations?

  1. Verity Jones says:

    Peter,
    might I suggest a bit of crowd sourcing on a larger scale since there are others with interest too. http://pielkeclimatesci.wordpress.com/2011/08/11/quality-of-global-climate-surface-observing-sites/ and also reposted at WUWT http://wattsupwiththat.com/2011/08/14/pielke-sr-on-the-quality-of-global-surface-stations/ I’d suggest a guest post on WUWT and I can help with that. Please email me.

  2. Verity Jones says:

    Ah – see you’ve seen it.

    • That was a post I had in mind as a discussion which might taper off, so I posted a comment there as soon as I had got this post up. Will e-mail you later tonight.

  3. Hi Peter

    As posted in Anthony’s blog, here is an update for :

    —————————
    WMO station 617 10763

    GHCN entry:
    61710763000 49.5000 11.0500 318.0 NUERNBERG 313U 499HIxxno-9A 2COOL CONIFER C

    Correction:
    61710763000 49.5030 11.0551 318.0 NUERNBERG 313S 499FLxxno-9A 6COOL CROPS C
    —————————

    Changes made in LAT/LON, POPCLS (Suburban), TOPO (Flat), TOWNDIS (6 km) and GRVEG (COOL CROPS). That fits better than the original coords, located in some externded woods, 30km away from the station.

    Station can be located in Google Earth at 49°30’10.81″N / 11° 3’18.49″E (very good resolution, you can see the Stevenson screen there).
    Actual photographs are here: http://www.wetter-rosstal.de/bilder?album=3&gallery=11

    Station resides at the same location since 1943, data available since 1953, and *validated* data since 1961.

    Hope that helps.
    Feel free to email me for further questions ;-)

    • Thanks. Nuernberg was a station I had already spotted, and I had seen your correction at WUWT, and refined my correction. It’s useful to have such confirmations that my corrections made on the basis of nominal airport location are close to the real locations. Some stations, such as Nuernberg here, may be outside the airport boundary. I have been using Google Earth to examine each station location which I have considered for correction.

      • Correction to above – I mistyped a digit when checking 49°30’10.81″N / 11° 3’18.49″E in Google Earth, and got a location just outside the boundary. Checking again I see it is inside.

  4. Verity Jones says:

    Oslo/Blindern – GHCN 59.9 N 10.7 E; Actual 59.942582° N 10.720400° E
    Difference about 5km.
    You can see the weather station on Google Street View, to the right if you enter the building carpark.
    http://www.stockpodium.com/en/images-photos/blindern/

  5. Verity Jones says:

    Correction. The Stevenson screen is visible in the garden in front of (NE) of the building as of May 2009 (Google Earth and Streetview), but by June 2010 it appears to have been moved to the SW (back) if the building, I’m guessing it is beside the radio tower. You may not be fussed about just such fine detail, but I record it here for others who may be interested in future.

  6. Two more stations which I should have included as corrected, but did not include in the tables above. In this case both are easy to locate with high precision, being mountain top rather than airport or displaced out to sea:

    61507460001 LE PUY DE DOME FRANCE 45.80 2.90
    should be 45.772 2.965
    61507621001 PIC DU MIDI FRANCE 42.90 0.10
    should be 42.936 0.143

    I’ve visited le Puy de Dome, and located the instrumentation. For the Pic du Midi I’ve chosen the eastern end of the observatory complex, away from the main building, but any error here would merely change the last digit by 1. By contrast, the GHCN locations are 6 km and 5.5 km distant respectively.

  7. Gail C. - NC USA says:

    I live near “Raleigh Executive Jetport, North Carolina” also called Sanford NC KTTA at Lat/Lon: 35.6° N 79.1° W

    If you wish I can go look at the station for you. The airport is “new” and was built less than 15 years ago and the Jet runway was added within the last couple of years.

    • Thanks for the offer, but the GHCN station is at Raleigh Durham rather than Raleigh Executive Jetport, and the GHCN coordinates are quite close to runway 14/32, and probably close to the true station site and accurate to 0.01 degrees. I think I can identify the station site, but in any case the GHCN coordinates are no more than approx 3 km distant from the farthest boundary of the airport.

  8. Steven Mosher says:

    peter did you check the WMO updates, they have new location information.

    email me

    • Have been incorporating (and checking – the updates still include errors) them on a regular basis.

      I’ve found that that “much smaller subset of stations” which I thought would “be sufficient to demonstrate a substantial effect on the Gistemp analysis” more elusive than I anticipated, as the problem with a smaller corrected subset is failure to include sufficient rural stations close enough to the urban station to allow the GISTEMP UHI correction to be applied in many cases, leading to a comparison of the GISTEMP analysis with classification based on uncorrected locations to a GISTEMP analysis with many urban stations unadjusted and so dropped, rather than with an analysis where these urban stations can be adjusted using reliably classified rural stations, avoiding inclusion of urban stations masquerading as rural due to incorrect classification.

      This comparison with a predominantly rural subset may be useful in its own right, but leaves questions unanswered, such as the balance between urban stations adjusted downwards to compensate for urban heating and those adjusted upwards to allow for urban cooling. Such urban cooling of course can and does exist, but analysis based on corrected classification so far seems to shift the balance back towards urban heating adjustment and away from the rather high incidence of urban cooling adjustment seen in the standard GISTEMP analysis, as might indeed be anticipated. An analysis with more adjusted urban stations would however be desirable to confirm such impacts.

      Will email shortly.

  9. Pingback: BEST Data “Quality” « Climate Audit

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